Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Laser Diode, Function, Circuit and Symbol



The photo above shows a small laser diode that is widely available on the market at a low price. The red wire is connected to the positive and the blue wire is connected to the negative. Usually the maximum voltage is around 4.5 volts.

Laser diode is semiconductor diode device, and it is about similar to light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Laser diode can directly convert electrical energy into light.

LASER stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation which can be interpreted as light produced from stimulated photon emissions. The light produced has the same phase, coherence, and wavelength.

Laser light radiates in a straight line, does not spread like ordinary light. So that the energy is focused and causes the laser light to contain high heat. Because the light is radiated straight and the heat is high, these characteristic are usually used for various purposes in applying laser technology.




YouTube video of green laser that light precious stone, crystal vessels, cut thread, and lit match.

The type of semiconductor material determines the wavelength of the emitted light, which in laser diodes currently ranges from a fairly broad spectrum from infrared (IR) to ultra violet (UV). Laser diode functions include laser pointer, laser printer, measuring distance, straightness and level, viewfinder, optical fiber communication, barcode reader, CD / DVD / Blu-ray disc reading / recording, engraver, laser cutter, surgical instrument, laser hair removal, tattoo removal, disco lights, magic tricks, laser beam shows and more. With the use of phosphorus as in white LEDs, laser diodes can be used for general lighting, remote spotlights, and others.


The laser diode symbol used in the circuit scheme is as shown above. Sometimes equipped with a circle around the diode. The pin connections in the circuit are the same as the rectifier diode, ie the anode pin (A) is connected to positive, and the cathode pin (C) is connected to negative.



The above scheme is the basic principle of a diode (LD) laser circuit. Batteries (B) are usually 4.5 volts or depending on the diode specifications.


The photo above is a diode laser with 3 pins. Usually the center pin is the body, used to strengthen the mounting. Pin connections can differ depending on the manufacturer.


Keychain with LED flashlight and laser diode pointer.


The above photo show all components of a small pointer after disassembly by pulling the front cover out. Then all components can be pulled out of the front end easily. Two buttons are pointed by red arrows. Those buttons need to be pressed when pulling electronic components out.



The above photo is a red light laser module power 5 milliwatts 5 volts.


The above photo is a box of laser pointer FGH-303, with a voltage of 3.7 volts and power less than 2000 mW, wavelength 532 nm (green). With this great power, it can lit a match head from a distance of about 7 cm.


This green laser focus can be adjusted, if the lens is closer to the diode, the beam will be more straight, and the hottest point about 7 cm from the snout.


If the lens is extended away from the laser diode, the focus point is about 8 cm and becomes hotter. Furthermore, the beam will spread and become more like a flashlight, not straight.






YouTube video about laser used for shooting practice without live ammunition or dry fire shooting.


Book about how to make various models of laser pistols that can also be used as laser pointers can be obtained at Amazon. But currently only available in certain countries.

Please use laser diode wisely. Do not be directed to the eye directly or the reflection, because it can create permanent damage to the eye. Do not aim at the vehicle. Do not aim at the sky, because low-power laser light can be seen and reach a distance of several kilometers that can interfere with flight.


Thursday, November 21, 2019

Fungsi Dioda Laser, Sirkuit dan Simbol




Foto di atas memperlihatkan dioda laser kecil yang banyak tersedia di pasaran dengan harga murah. Kabel merah disambung ke positif dan kabel biru disambung ke negatif. Biasanya tegangan maximumnya sekitar 4,5 volt.

Dioda laser adalah termasuk perangkat dioda semikonduktor yang mirip dengan dioda pemancar cahaya (LED, Light Emitting Diode). Dioda laser dapat secara langsung mengubah energi listrik menjadi cahaya.

LASER merupakan singkatan dari Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation yang dapat diartikan sebagai cahaya yang dihasilkan dari emisi foton yang terstimulasi. Cahaya yang dihasilkan mempunyai fase, koherensi, dan panjang gelombang yang sama.

Cahaya laser memancar lurus, tidak menyebar seperti lampu biasa. Sehingga energinya terfokus dan menyebabkan cahaya laser mengandung panas yang tinggi. Karena cahaya yang terpancar lurus dan panasnya yang tinggi, karakteristik tersebut yang biasanya dimanfaatkan untuk berbagai keperluan dalam menerapkan teknologi laser.



Video YouTube tentang laser hijau yang menyalakan batu mulia, bejana kristal, memotong benang, dan menyulut korek api.

Jenis bahan semikonduktor menentukan panjang gelombang sinar yang dipancarkan, yang dalam dioda laser saat ini berkisar dengan spektrum cukup luas dari infra merah (Infra Red, IR) ke ultra ungu (Ultra Violet, UV). Fungsi dioda laser mencakup penunjuk laser, printer laser, mengukur jarak, kelurusan dan level, alat bidik, komunikasi serat optik, pembaca barcode, pembacaan / perekaman CD / DVD / Blu-ray disc, pengukir (engraver), laser pemotong, alat bedah, menghilangkan rambut dan bulu, menghapus tato, lampu disco, trik sulap, pertunjukan lampu sorot (laser beam show), dan lain-lain. Dengan penggunaan fosfor seperti pada LED putih, dioda laser dapat digunakan untuk penerangan umum, lampu sorot jauh, dan lain-lain.


Simbol dioda laser yang biasa digunakan pada skema rangkaian adalah sebagaimana gambar di atas. Kadang dilengkapi dengan garis lingkaran yang mengelilingi dioda. Pemasangan dioda pada rangkaian adalah sama dengan dioda penyearah, yaitu kaki anoda (A) disambung ke positif, dan kaki katoda disambung ke negatif (C).



Skema di atas adalah prinsip dasar sirkuit laser dioda (LD). Baterai (B) biasanya 4,5 volt atau tergantung spesifikasi dioda.


Foto di atas adalah laser dioda dengan 3 kaki, Biasanya kaki yang tengah adalah bodi, digunakan untuk memperkuat pemasangan (mounting). Koneksi pin bisa berbeda tergantung pabrikan.



Gantungan kunci dengan senter LED dan pointer dioda laser.


Foto di atas menunjukkan semua komponen laser pointer kecil setelah pembongkaran dengan menarik penutup depan. Kemudian semua komponen dapat ditarik keluar dari ujung depan dengan mudah. Ada dua tombol ditunjuk oleh panah merah. Tombol-tombol itu perlu ditekan ketika mengeluarkan komponen elektronik. 



Foto di atas adalah laser module sinar merah daya 5 milli watt 5 volt.


Foto di atas adalah kotak laser pointer FGH-303, tegangan 3.7 volt dan daya kurang dari 2000 mW panjang gelombang 532 nm (hijau). Dengan daya besar ini dapat menyalakan kepala korek api dari jarak sekitar 7 cm.



Laser hijau ini dapat disetel fokusnya, jika lensa tidak dijauhkan dari dioda maka sinarnya akan lebih lurus, dan titik terpanas sekitar 7 cm dari moncong.



Jika lensa dijauhkan dari dioda laser, maka titik fokusnya berada sekitar 8 cm dan menjadi lebih panas. Selanjutnya sinar akan lebih menyebar mirip senter, tidak lurus.



Video YouTube tentang laser yang digunakan untuk latihan menembak tanpa peluru.




Buku tentang cara membuat berbagai model pistol laser yang juga dapat digunakan sebagai laser pointer dapat diperoleh di Amazon. Tapi saat ini baru tersedia di negara-negara tertentu.


Harap gunakan dioda laser dengan bijaksana. Jangan diarahkan ke mata secara langsung maupun pantulannya, karena bisa membuat kerusakan permanen pada mata. Jangan diarahkan ke kendaraan. Jangan diarahkan ke langit, karena cahaya laser daya rendah dapat terlihat dan menjangkau jarak beberapa kilometer yang dapat mengganggu penerbangan.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Caterpillar Diecast Models Norscot 725 Articulated Dump Truck



Caterpillar truck toy type 725 Articulated Dump Truck, made by Norscot scale models, product code 55073, truck scale 1:50.

This off-road dump truck is also called articulated truck, articulated hauler, articulated haul truck. Articulated dump truck manufacturers include: Caterpillar, Terex, John Deere / Bell Equipment, Moxy / Doosan, Volvo CE, and Komatsu Limited. Volvo is the market leader in this segment with about half the global market share, and also the main pioneer of this truck, first introduced to the market in 1966. As quoted from Wikipedia.

The following YouTube video shows the unboxing of the Cat 725 die-cast truck.


Articulated dump truck has two major body parts, the front part is a tractor, and the rear part is a trailer.

Between the tractor and the trailer there is a hinge so that the truck can turn, while the front wheel cannot turn.

Another YouTube video.


Read also my Amazon Kindle books about science toy: boats, submarines, laser pistols.

There is also a pivot to allow the body to be twisted, so that the truck can follow contour of uneven road surface.

The rear suspension of this die-cast truck can move like the original ADT trucks.



With the pivot between the tractor and the trailer, and also aided by suspension, the truck can easily follow the contour of the uneven road surface.

The dump body on this die-cast model can be moved to dump the load.


The photo above shows the maximum dump position of this die-cast truck toy.

The advantage of articulated dump trucks is that all six wheels can be driven by the engine, also called six-wheel drive or 6x6. Therefore the truck can easily drive on slippery, muddy and sandy roads. A fast truck for off-road.

The size of the truck tires are large and wide. Usually radial type tire, not the bias type as on ordinary truck. So tire has a better grip.

Because of the big and wide size of wheels, and limited space under wheel well, so that the front wheels can not turn. That is why this truck turns by articulate.

The turning radius is tighter than an ordinary rigid truck, so that this truck can operate in narrow space.

The disadvantages of articulated dump truck are the high price, and high maintenance costs, due to more complicated hydraulic system and power transmission system.

Because this scale model truck is quite complicated and detailed like real, so this toy truck becomes an expensive collectable toy car.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Mainan Diecast Truck Model Caterpillar 725




Mainan mobil-mobilan truk Caterpillar tipe 725 Articulated Dump Truck, buatan Norscot scale models, kode produk 55073, skala 1:50.

Articulated dump truck atau disebut juga articulated truck, articulated hauler. articulated haul truck. Produsennya antara lain adalah: Caterpillar, Terex, John Deere / Bell Equipment, Moxy / Doosan, Volvo CE, dan Komatsu Limited. Volvo adalah pemimpin pasar di segmen ini dengan sekitar setengah pangsa global, dan juga merupakan pelopor utama truk ini, pertama kali dikenalkan ke pasar pada tahun 1966. Sebagaimana dikutip dari Wikipedia.

Video YouTube berikut memperlihatkan unboxing dari diecast truck Cat 725.



Articulated dump truck mempunyai dua bagian yaitu bagian depan sebagai tractor dan bagian belakang sebagai trailer.



Di antara tractor dengan trailer terdapat engsel agar truk bisa berbelok, roda depannya sendiri tidak bisa berbelok

Video YouTube lainnya.




Juga terdapat sumbu sehingga memungkinkan bodi bisa terpuntir, agar truk bisa mengikuti kontur permukaan jalan yang tidak rata. Maka disebut sebagai articulated truck, mungkin bisa diartikan sebagai truk yang bisa patah pinggang

Suspensi belakang dari truk die-cast ini bisa bergerak seperti  truk aslinya



Dengan adanya sumbu antara tractor dan trailer, juga dibantu dengan suspensi, maka truk bisa dengan mudah mengikuti kontur permukaan jalan yang tidak rata.

Bak truk atau dump body pada model die-cast ini bisa digerakkan untuk buang muatan atau dump



Foto di atas memperlihatkan posisi jungkit maximum dari mainan diecast truck ini.

Kelebihan daripada articulated dump truck adalah ke enam rodanya dapat diputar oleh engine. Disebut juga berpenggerak enam roda atau 6x6, sehingga dengan mudah bisa berjalan di jalan licin, berlumpur, dan berpasir.

Ukuran bannya besar dan lebar. Biasanya dari tipe ban radial, bukan tipe bias seperti pada truk biasa. Sehingga ban menapak lebih baik.

Karena ukuran roda yang besar dan lebar tersebut, maka ruang roda di bawah spakbor menjadi sempit sehingga roda depan tidak bisa berbelok. Itulah sebabnya truk ini berbelok dengan cara articulate atau patah pinggang.

Radius putar atau turning radius lebih kecil dari truk rigid biasa, sehingga truk ini bisa beroperasi di medan yang sempit.

Kelemahan dari truk ini adalah harga yang mahal dan biaya perawatan yang mahal, karena sistem hidraulik dan sistem transmisi daya yang lebih rumit.

Karena mobil-mobilan truk ini cukup rumit dan detail seperti sungguhan, maka truk mainan ini menjadi mainan mahal.







Saturday, November 2, 2019

How Excel Formula Calculate Degrees of Angle




Microsoft Excel uses radians as a unit of measurement of angle or degree.

1 (one) radians is equal to 57.29577951 degrees or rounded to 57.296.

1 (one) radians is equal to 180 degrees divided by Pi (22/7).

Read also calculate land lot area by GPS (Global Positioning System) coordinates which uses trigonometric formulas.

Therefore the measurement in degrees must be converted into radians for accurate calculation results. Following are the sine, cosine, and tangent formulas:

sine of 90 degrees
=SIN(90/57.296)
the result is 1

cosine 90 degrees
=COS(90/57.296)
the result is 6E-06 or rounded to 0

tangent 45 degrees
=TAN(45/57.296)
the result is 0.999993955 or rounded to 1.


The formula on the above examples are already syntactically correct or correct writing format, so that it can be copied and pasted on an Excel sheet, as shown below.


Also read the VLOOKUP function in Excel with examples of applications in: list of names, phone, warehouse stock (inventory), and others.


Changes from degrees to radians can be done by the RADIANS formula.
example of changing 90 degrees to radians:

=RADIANS(90)
the result is 1.570796327


And to convert radians to degrees can use the DEGREES formula.

=DEGREES(1.570796327)
the result is 90


Read also RANK formula which can be applied for sports competition.


For the inverse formula of the above function or arc are as follows:

arcsinus 0.5
=ASIN(0.5)
the result is 0.523598776 radians


to get directly into unit of degrees the formula is
=DEGREES(ASIN(0.5))
the result is 30 degrees

arccosinus 0.5
=ACOS(0.5)
the result is 1.047197551 radians

to go directly to units of degrees the formula is
=DEGREES(ACOS(0.5))
the result is 60 degrees


arctangen 0.5
=ATAN(0.5)
the result is 0.463647609 radians

to get directly to units of degree the formula is
=DEGREES(ATAN(0.5))
the result is 26.56505118 degrees


The ATAN formula can be used to calculate the angle of the house roof.