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Tuesday, June 21, 2022

Digital TV Set Top Box Apple

  

Analog TV systems use electromagnetic waves (radio waves) for transmitting video and sound signals, in a manner similar to signal transmission for AM radio and FM radio. Like radio signals, analog TV signals can suffer from a lot of interference. The quality of analog transmission decreases the further it is from the source.

Digital TV signals are transmitted in compressed data packets. The data uses the binary numbers 1 and 0, similar to data on computer, DVD player, the internet, and other digital devices. Due to the use of this binary code, the digital signal is subject to less interference than the analog TV signal.

Indonesian TV broadcasts so far are analog broadcasts. The Indonesian government is campaigning for an analog to digital TV migration program (MODI). The MODI program is targeted for completion in November 2022.

Set top box (STB) devices are also called: decoders, converters, receivers, signal converters, signal processors. This device functions to process digital TV broadcast signals so that they can be displayed on analog TVs, both tube TVs and flat screen TVs such as plasma and LED. Some of the new products of flat screen TVs can process digital signals, so there is no need to add a set top box.

Because it still uses radio waves for data transmission, digital TV still uses antenna. Old TV antennas, both the existing VHF and UHF types, can still be used. There is no need to use a satellite dish, because the signal does not come from the satellite. If using a set top box, then one set top box unit is for one TV.

Just like analog broadcasts, digital broadcasts are free (FTA, Free To Air), without the need for a subscription. Especially for the poor, the Indonesian Ministry of Communication and Information (Kominfo) plans to distribute free set top boxes.

Matrix is ​​known as the maker of satellite dish receivers, now they also make set top boxes to process digital TV broadcasts. One of the devices made is named Matrix Apple DVB T2 Red, which is claimed to be more sensitive to signals than other devices.

DVB T2 stands for Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial second generation. Terrestrial means earth based transmitted signal, it is not satellite signal.

This Red Apple Matrix has a red box, the body of the device is black, the advantages include:

- Good signal receiving

- Full HD 1080p - Super sharp images

- Memory 8 Mb

- 2 USBs, one for wifi dongle, one for flash disk memory

- HDMI port or HDTV connection commonly used on today's TVs

- RCA port, connection consists of 3 coaxial cables for: video (CVBS), left audio, and right audio. It can be connected to a tube TV, or any other old TV that generally uses an RCA connection.

 

Rear view of the Red Apple Matrix, from left to right:

ANT IN to connect to the antenna.

The LOOP OUT is connected to the antenna IN connector on the TV, so that it can still receive analog broadcasts.

USB2.0 for external memory (flash disk), can also be used for wifi dongle, the other USB connector is on the front, under the words APPLE, as shown in the very top photo.

HDTV to connect to a TV with an HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) cable as below. This cable is not included in the Apple Matric box, must be purchased separately.

 


CVBS (Composite Video Baseband Signal) is a video signal output for TVs with yellow RCA connection.

L-AUDIO is the left sound signal output for a TV with a white RCA connection.

R-AUDIO is the right sound signal output for a TV with a red RCA connection.

RCA cables for the above three connections are included in the Apple Matrix box, no need to be purchased separately.

The available menus are shown on the TV screen as below, by pressing the Menu button on the remote.

 




The Search menu is used to search for digital broadcasts, by first entering the postal code where the TV is located.

If the YouTube application is selected, a simple menu from YouTube will appear as follows.



Then press the Menu button on the remote again, a more complete YouTube menu will appear.



Some overseas / international broadcasts will be shown: Vevo, Top Gear, Arabs Got Talent, BBC, Ellen Show, Sky News, Al Jazeera, Bein Sport France, MBC, Arab Idol, OSN, Shahid VOD, CBC.

In the Application menu (APP) there are international broadcasts of IPTV (Internet Protocol TV) such as from Arabic, Russian, Iranian, WeTV, Facebook Game, Quran.

Add a wifi dongle (antenna and wifi receiver) to be able to capture internet broadcasts. The wifi dongle must be purchased separately and plugged into the USB connector on the set top box.

 


Use the MeeCast app on Android and Apple smartphones, so you can surf the internet, watch YouTube, TikTok, Vidio, Facebook, Instagram, and more without ad breaks. The MeeCast application can also be used as a remote to control viewing on the TV.


Screenshot of a smartphone with MeeCast connected via wifi with a TV as shown below.


MeeCast can be turned off when the TV is broadcasting internet broadcasts, in order to save internet quota.

If the TV is turned off, then the STB must also be turned off, at least the STB exits the internet menu. So that the internet quota is not absorbed by the STB, even though the TV is not turned on or not watched.

The software on the STB needs to be upgraded if the latest version is available, it can be checked via the internet. Use the Upgrade menu to upgrade the version.

The Red Apple Matrix has been certified with SNI, EWS certificate and the Directorate General of Post and Telecommunication. More details about STB can be read at matrixparabola.com.



Saturday, May 21, 2022

Televisi Digital Matrix Apple DVB T2

 


Sistem TV analog menggunakan gelombang elektromagnetik (gelombang radio) untuk transmisi sinyal video dan suara, dengan cara yang mirip dengan transmisi sinyal pada radio AM dan radio FM. Seperti sinyal radio, sinyal TV analog dapat mengalami banyak gangguan. Kualitas transmisi analog menurun jika semakin jauh dari sumbernya.

Sinyal TV digital ditransmisikan dalam paket data terkompresi. Data menggunakan bilangan binari 1 dan 0, mirip dengan data komputer, pemutar DVD, internet, dan perangkat digital lainnya. Karena menggunakan kode binari ini, sinyal digital lebih sedikit mengalami gangguan daripada sinyal TV analog. 

Siaran TV Indonesia selama ini adalah siaran analog. Pemerintah Indonesia sedang mengkampanyekan program migrasi TV analog ke digital (MODI). Program MODI ini ditargetkan selesai pada November 2022. 

Perangkat set top box (STB) disebut juga: dekoder, converter, receiver, penerima, pengubah sinyal, pengolah sinyal. Perangkat ini berfungsi mengolah sinyal siaran TV digital agar dapat ditampilkan pada TV analog, baik TV tabung maupun TV layar datar seperti plasma dan LED. Beberapa TV layar datar keluaran akhir sudah dapat mengolah sinyal digital, sehingga tidak perlu ditambah set top box.

Karena masih menggunakan gelombang radio sebagai wadah transmisi data, maka TV digital masih menggunakan antena. Antena TV lama, baik tipe VHF maupun UHFyang sudah ada, masih bisa digunakan. Tidak perlu menggunakan parabola, karena sinyal yang ditangkap bukan sinyal dari satelit. Jika menggunakan set top box, maka satu unit set top box untuk satu TV. 

Sama seperti siaran analog, siaran digital adalah gratis (FTA, free to air), tanpa perlu berlangganan. Khusus bagi warga tak mampu, Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika (Kominfo) berencana membagikan set top box gratis. 

Matrix dikenal sebagai pembuat receiver parabola, kini mereka juga membuat set top box untuk menangkap siaran TV digital. Salah satu perangkat yang dibuat diberi nama Matrix Apple DVB T2 Merah, diklaim lebih peka terhadap sinyal dibanding perangkat yang lain. 

DVB T2 adalah kependekan dari Digital Video Broadcasting Second Generation Terrestrial, dapat diartikan sebagai Penyiaran Video Digital Generasi Kedua Terestrial (permukaan tanah, bukan satelit).

Matrix Apple Merah ini kotaknya yang ada warna merah, bodi perangkatnya berwarna hitam  keunggulannya antara lain:

- Penangkapan sinyal bagus

- Full HD 1080p - Gambar super tajam

- Memori 8 Mb

- USB 2 buah, satu untuk wifi dongle, satu lagi untuk memori flash disk

- Port HDMI atau koneksi HDTV yang umum digunakan pada TV saat ini

- Port RCA, koneksi terdiri dari 3 kabel coaxial untuk: video (CVBS), suara / audio kiri, dan audio kanan. Dapat dihubungkan ke TV tabung, atau TV lama lain yang umumnya menggunakan koneksi RCA. 


 
Penampakan bagian belakang Matrix Apple Merah, dari kiri ke kanan:

ANT IN untuk disambung pada antena. 

LOOP OUT disambung ke konektor antena IN pada TV, agar tetap dapat menerima siaran analog.

USB2.0 untuk memori eksternal (flash disk), bisa juga untuk wifi dongle, konektor USB lainnya terdapat di bagian muka, di bawah tulisan APPLE, sebagaimana tampak pada foto paling atas.

HDTV untuk disambung ke TV dengan kabel HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) seperti di bawah ini. Kabel ini tidak tersedia di dalam box Matric Apple, harus dibeli terpisah.

CVBS (Composite Video Baseband Signal) adalah output sinyal video untuk TV dengan koneksi RCA warna kuning.

L-AUDIO adalah output sinyal suara kiri untuk TV dengan koneksi RCA warna putih.

R-AUDIO adalah output sinyal suara kanan untuk TV dengan koneksi RCA warna merah.

Kabel RCA untuk ke tiga koneksi di atas tersedia di dalam box Matrix Apple, tidak perlu dibeli terpisah.


Menu yang tersedia terlihat pada layar TV sebagaimana di bawah, dengan menekan tombol menu pada remot.



Menu Pencarian digunakan untuk mencari siaran digital, dengan terlebih dulu memasukkan kode pos di lokasi TV berada.

Jika dipilih aplikasi YouTube, maka akan muncul menu sederhana dari YouTube seperti berikut.


Lalu tekan kembali tombol menu pada remot, maka akan muncul menu YouTube yang lebih lengkap.



Seperti siaran luar negeri / internasional: Vevo, Top Gear, Arabs Got Talent, BBC, Ellen Show, Sky News, Al Jazeera, Bein Sport France, MBC, Arab Idol, OSN, Shahid VOD, CBC.

Pada menu aplikasi (APP) terdapat siaran internasional IPTV (Internet Protocol TV) seperti dari Arab, Rusia, Iran, WeTV, Facebook Game, Quran.

Tambahkan wifi dongle (antena dan penerima wifi) agar dapat menangkap siaran internet. Wifi dongle harus dibeli tersendiri dan dipasang ke konektor USB pada set top box.

Gunakan aplikasi MeeCast pada smartphone Android dan Apple, agar dapat menjelajah internet, menonton YouTube, TikTok, Vidio, Facebook, Instagram, dan lain-lain tanpa jeda iklan. Aplikasi MeeCast juga dapat digunakan sebagai remot untuk mengkontrol tayangan pada TV.


Penampakan layar smartphone dengan MeeCast yang terkoneksi melalui wifi dengan TV.

 


MeeCast dapat dimatikan saat TV sedang menayangkan siaran internet, agar menghemat quota internet. 

Jika TV dimatikan, maka STB juga harus dimatikan, paling tidak STB harus keluar dari menu internet. Agar quota internet tidak terserap STB, padahal TV tidak dinyalakan alias tidak ditonton.

Perangkat lunak pada STB perlu diperbaharui jika sudah tersedia versi terbaru, yang dicek via internet. Gunakan menu Upgrade untuk meningkatkan versinya. 

Matrix Apple Merah sudah bersertifikat SNI, sertifikat EWS dan Ditjen Postel. Lebih detail tentang STB dapat dibaca di matrixparabola.com .


Thursday, April 21, 2022

Homemade Coconut Oil, 3 Easy Ways

  


Coconut cooking oil is quite popular for cooking, in addition to using palm oil or other cooking oils. This article discusses 3 ways to make coconut oil at home, namely:

1. heated with a stove while stirring

2. heated in a rice cooker without stirring

3. without heating to produce virgin coconut oil (VCO)


1. PROCESS WITH HEATING AND STIRRING

The process of making coconut oil by heating is the most popular, because this is the fastest process. But it requires heating and stirring. The heat will evaporate the water content in the coconut milk. So that the coconut milk runs out of water. And the coconut oil is left, with dregs contains: fiber, protein, and fat. This method is similar to how to cook Padang dishes such as rendang. Where coconut milk is used to boil meat, until the water in the coconut milk evaporates. Then the cooking method changed from boiling the meat, to frying the meat with coconut oil from the coconut milk.

The process of making coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L) by heating is as follows:

Choose an old coconut, peeled and cleaned the remaining hard skin from the coconut shell, take the flesh. The skin of the fruit flesh (testa) is a thin brown skin that wraps around the coconut flesh, usually not removed, to ensure coconut flesh contains more oil.

Grate the coconut meat using a grater. You can use a blender, juicer, and other electric tool (food processor). But make sure not to fill too much to avoid blender overload. Usually, coconut meat should be cut into small pieces, like dice about 1 cm in size. Then water is added to make it easier to chop and mix in a blender. Grated coconut is also available in the market.

Mix grated coconut with clean water, about 800 milliliters for 1 coconut, to form a good coconut milk. If you use coconut water (coconut juice) to make coconut milk, the coconut oil produced will taste a bit sweet. Suitable for making sweet foods such as cakes. Ready coconut milk is also widely sold in the market. Strain the coconut milk from the coarse coconut pulp. If you use a fine cloth filter, the oil will be cleaner. But it will also reduce the volume of oil produced. Because the oil is contained in the coconut pulps, and those pulps are also filtered.

Prepare a frying pan or wok and heat with a small flame then pour the coconut milk, stir slowly. If too much heat then it should be stirred more often. But too much heat will reduce the quality of the oil. The photo below shows that the foam that sticks to the pan is higher, while the foam on the face of the coconut milk is lower. Because some of the water has evaporated.

 


Due to the difference in specific gravity, the water will be at the bottom of the pan, because water is the heaviest. The oil will be on top, because it is lighter. Coconut dregs that still contain oil will be on top. Water will be difficult to evaporate because it is blocked by oil on top of it. So it needs to be lifted to the top by stirring it. The dregs containing the oil need to be directed downwards. So that they are exposed to the heat. And the oil is diluted, so that it comes out of the dregs. The dregs will stick together like foam, sometimes it is sticking to the pan if not stirred. If the water has been greatly reduced, the coconut milk will appear brown with a pool of oil on the surface, as in the photo below.

 


The photo below shows the golden color oil accumulating on a frying pan, with a dark brown dregs and slightly sticking to the pan due to high heat and insufficient stirring. After strain and pour into a container, the oil is ready to use.



With a small flame and continuous stirring, the results will be better. Even though it takes longer as shown in the photo below. Low heat process can take about 4 hours, depending on the amount of coconut milk, wide pan area to ensure water evaporates easily, stirring, and so on. Due to the long heating time, this method is less efficient if making less than 1 liter of oil.

The above oil on the frying pan comes from a single coconut. It can reach about 150 milliliters per coconut, so for 1 liter of oil it takes about 6 coconuts. Sulawesi (Celebes) coconuts can produce more oil per coconut.

If you want get a clear oil like water, then the heating should not be too long. Heating is immediately stopped when the dregs color is slightly brown. But the volume of oil will decrease slightly.

The coconut leftover (dregs, solids, pulp) is edible, tastes and smells good, and it is beneficial for health. Dregs can make dishes such as rendang, coconut oil fried rice, to be delicious. So those foods are included in the list of the world's most delicious foods (world best foods 2021). Coconut oil dregs is also called blondo (Indonesia) and latik (Philipines).

Blondo can also be used as a snack or processed into other foods like the recipes on Cookpad. If coconut milk uses coconut water, then dregs will taste sweet. Latik recipes are also available in Cookpad.


2. FERMENTATION AND HEATING BY RICE COOKER

A rice cooker can be used to make coconut cooking oil. Coconut milk is put into a plastic bag. Then placed in a dark place at room temperature so that the fermentation process occurs.

Light can cause photodegradation (decay by light) so that unwanted changes occur in: fats, pigments (colors), proteins, vitamins, aromas, and others.

After about an hour, the coconut milk will separate to become two parts, the top part is coconut cream (curd), and below is water. As the photo below. 


In order to be used as cooking oil, coconut cream needs to be heated. Remove the water by making a hole in the bottom of the plastic bag. 


The coconut cream left in the plastic bag is then put into the rice cooker. Set the rice cooker to the cooking position. The rice cooker will heat the coconut cream to a relatively constant temperature of 100 degrees Celsius. Because the rice cooker has an automatic heat regulator.

 


No need to stir the coconut cream often, you can even leave it like cooking rice. Non-stick Teflon coating on the rice cooker pan prevents dregs from sticking to the pan. The rice cooker does not need to be closed, so that the steam escapes easily.

Water absorbs more heat than oil. If all the water in the coconut milk evaporates, the temperature will rise suddenly beyond 100 degrees Celsius. And the rice cooker detects that temperature rise, it will automatically change from the cooking setting to warm setting. So what is left in the pan is coconut oil and dregs.

But the dregs produced by the rice cooker is still a bit moist, so it is less tasty when eaten. So dregs needs to be fried again to make it more tasty, or other food process.

This method with a rice cooker is more practical and less troublesome, because there is no need to stir continuously. Also because the water has been separated and removed from the coconut milk, the heating will be faster. In places where there are lots of coconut trees, the price of coconut is usually cheaper. So the process of producing coconut oil with this rice cooker can be cheap.

The oil produced by heating coconut milk has a smoke point of about 204 °C. The smoke point is the temperature when the oil evaporates releasing volatile compounds, so that the bluish-white smoke is clearly visible. The cooking process should not exceed this smoke point temperature. Because oil produces toxic compounds if the smoke point is exceeded. Aroma and taste can also change.

Above the smoke point temperature there is a flash point, the point at which vapors from oil can ignite in air, if in contact with a fire or spark.


3. VIRGIN COCONUT OIL

Coconut cream of the 2nd process can also get the oil out without being heated. If you leave it in a dark place long enough, the coconut cream will separate the oil. This oil is virgin coconut oil (VCO). But this process can take more than 12 hours, and it produces less oil. VCO can be drunk and efficacious for health.

The coconut cream, which has been separated from the water, is transferred from a plastic bag into a glass container, filled to the brim. Then covered with plastic and rubber, so as not to be exposed to outside air. Store in a dark place. 


After about 12 to 24 hours, the coconut cream will separate into 3 parts. 


The very bottom is a slightly cloudy water. The clear middle part is VCO. And the top white and slightly yellow is the fine coconut pulp. There is also coconut pulp or solids that settles to the bottom, if the oil contained in the pulp has been released.

Prepare a wide screener, put a thin layer of cotton to become a fine filter. Thicker cotton makes cleaner filtered oil. If the cotton is too thick, then the oil will be difficult to drip. If you use a funnel, the filtering will take longer, because the funnel is blocked. The cotton and dirt accumulate in the narrow hole, so the oil is difficult to drip.

 


Tissue paper can also be used to filter oil. But the paper is easily damaged and perforated if there is still water contained in the coconut pulp.

VCO has low smoke point around 177 °C. So VCO may not suitable for frying food, especially foods that require high temperatures. VCO is suitable for cooking by sauteing, or frying with a little water. Or other cooking methods with temperatures lower than the VCO smoke point.

Making VCO does not produce dry solids, because there is no heating. There is only the remaining coconut pulp containing minimum oil, or wet solids. The water used for coconut milk VCO is also not hot water. Because heat can reduce the quality of the VCO. But the water for the coconut milk must be boiled water, drinking water standards. So that there are no bacteria that contaminate the VCO.

Although it takes longer, to let the coconut milk in a dark place. Making VCO is actually easier and simpler, than other coconut oil manufacturing processes. Because it does not need heating and stirring. So that the working hours required are much less. Making VCO can be done as a sideline while doing other work, or even while napping or sleeping at night.

The coconut oil produced by the rice cooker can be seen in the following photo, in the glass on the left about 125 ml. Coconut oil is slightly golden yellow in color, with the remaining dregs settling at the bottom of the glass. 


While in the glass on the right is the resulting VCO about 80 ml, it is clear like clear water. The oil in each one glass is produced from one old coconut.





Monday, March 21, 2022

Buat Minyak Goreng Kelapa Di Rumah

 


Minyak goreng kelapa cukup populer untuk memasak, selain menggunakan minyak sawit. Artikel ini membahas 3 cara membuat minyak kelapa di rumah, yaitu: 

1. dipanasi dengan kompor sambil diaduk

2. dipanasi dengan rice cooker tanpa diaduk 

3. tanpa pemanasan menghasilkan minyak kelapa dara


1. PROSES DENGAN PEMANASAN DAN PENGADUKAN

Proses pembuatan minyak kelapa dengan cara pemanasan paling populer, karena paling cepat prosesnya. Tapi membutuhkan pemanasan dan pengadukan. Panas akan menguapkan kandungan air di dalam santan. Sehingga santan habis airnya dan yang  tertinggal adalah minyak kelapa, dan ampas yang disebut blondo yang mengandung: serat, protein, dan lemak. Cara ini mirip dengan cara memasak masakan Padang seperti rendang. Di mana santan digunakan untuk merebus daging, sampai air pada santan menguap. Selanjutnya cara memasak berubah dari merebus daging, menjadi menggoreng daging dengan minyak kelapa dari santan tersebut.

Proses pembuatan minyak kelapa (Cocos nucifera L) dengan dipanasi adalah sebagai berikut:

Pilih buah kelapa yang sudah tua, dikupas dan dibersihkan kulit keras sisa dari batok kelapa, ambil dagingnya. Kulit daging buah (testa) yaitu kulit tipis berwarna coklat yang membungkus daging kelapa, biasanya tidak dibuang, agar minyaknya lebih banyak.

Parutlah daging kelapa tersebut menggunakan parutan. Bisa dengan menggunakan blender, juicer, dan alat listrik lainnya (food processor). Tapi pastikan jangan mengisi terlalu banyak sehingga memberatkan kerja blender. Biasanya daging kelapa harus dipotong kecil-kecil seperti dadu ukuran sekitar 1 cm, lalu diberi air agar mudah dicacah dan diaduk blender. Di pasaran juga tersedia kelapa yang sudah diparut.

Campur parutan kelapa dengan air bersih sekitar 800 mili liter air untuk 1 buah kelapa agar terbentuk santan yang bagus. Jika menggunakan air kelapa untuk santan, maka minyak kelapa yang dihasilkan akan terasa agak manis. Cocok digunakan untuk membuat makanan manis seperti kue. Santan yang sudah jadi, juga banyak dijual di pasar. Saring santan dari ampas kelapa yang kasar. Jika menggunakan saringan kain yang halus, maka minyak akan lebih bersih. Tapi juga akan mengurangi volume minyak yang diproduksi. Karena minyak terkandung di dalam ampas kelapa yang ikut tersaring.

Siapkan penggorengan dengan nyala api yang kecil lalu tuangkan air santan tersebut, aduk perlahan. Jika api besar maka harus diaduk lebih sering. Tapi api yang terlalu panas akan menurunkan kualitas minyak. Foto di bawah tampak buih yang melekat di wajan lebih tinggi, sedangkan buih pada muka santan lebih rendah. Karena sebagian air sudah menguap.

 


Karena perbedaan berat jenis, air akan berada paling bawah di dasar wajan, karena air paling berat. Minyak akan berada di atas karena lebih ringan. Ampas kelapa yang masih mengandung minyak akan berada di atas. Air akan susah menguap karena terhalang minyak di atasnya.  Sehingga perlu diangkat ke atas dengan mengaduknya. Ampas yang mengandung minyak perlu diarahkan ke bawah agar terkena panas dan minyaknya mengencer sehingga keluar dari ampas. Ampas akan membentuk buih juga disebut dengan blondo, kadang menempel di wajan jika tidak diaduk. Itu sebabnya disarankan menggunakan api kecil. Jika air sudah sangat berkurang, maka santan tampak kecoklatan dengan genangan minyak dipermukaan, seperti pada foto di bawah.



Foto di bawah memperlihatkan minyak terkumpul di wajan berwarna keemasan, dengan blondo coklat gelap dan agak lengket ke wajan karena api besar dan kurang diaduk. Saring dan tuang ke dalam wadah, minyak siap digunakan.

 


Dengan api yang kecil dan selalu diaduk maka hasilnya akan lebih bagus walau butuh waktu yang lebih lama sebagaimana foto di bawah. Pemanasan dengan api kecil dapat mencapai 4 jam. Bergantung pada banyaknya air santan, lebar muka wajan agar air mudah menguap, pengadukan, dan lain-lain. Karena lamanya pemanasan tersebut, maka cara ini kurang efisien untuk membuat minyak kurang dari 1 liter. 

Minyak pada wajan tersebut berasal dari satu buah kelapa. Biasanya dapat mencapai 150 mili liter per kelapa, maka untuk 1 liter minyak dibutuhkan sekitar 6 butir kelapa. Untuk kelapa Sulawesi dapat menghasilkan lebih banyak minyak per butir kelapa.

Jika ingin minyak bening seperti air, maka pemanasan jangan terlalu lama. Pemanasan segera dihentikan ketika warna blondo agak coklat, tapi volume minyak akan sedikit berkurang.

Blondo atau glondo, glendo, ampas minyak kelapa ini juga disebut: tahi minyak di Sumatra dan Sulawesi, taek lallak di Kalimantan. Blondo dapat dimakan, rasa dan aromanya enak, dan bermanfaat bagi kesehatan. Blondo inilah yang juga menyebabkan masakan seperti rendang, nasi goreng minyak kelapa, enak dan lezat rasanya. Sehingga masuk daftar makanan terlezat kelas dunia (world best foods 2021)

Blondo juga dapat dijadikan cemilan atau diolah menjadi makanan lain sebagaimana resep-resep di Cookpad. Jika santan menggunakan air kelapa, maka blondo akan terasa manis.


2. PROSES FERMENTASI DAN PEMANASAN DENGAN RICE COOKER

Rice cooker atau penanak nasi bisa digunakan  untuk membuat minyak goreng kelapa. Santan kelapa dimasukkan ke dalam kantong plastik. Lalu diletakkan di tempat yang gelap dengan temperatur ruang agar terjadi proses fermentasi.

Cahaya dapat menyebabkan fotodegradasi (pembusukan oleh cahaya) sehingga terjadi perubahan yang tidak diinginkan pada: lemak, pigmen (warna), protein, vitamin, aroma, dan lain-lain.

Setelah sekitar satu jam maka santan akan terpisah jadi dua bagian, yaitu di atas krim santan (dadih, kanil), dan di bawah adalah air. Sebagaimana foto di bawah.


Agar menjadi minyak goreng, krim santan perlu dipanasi. Buang air dengan melubangi di bagian bawah kantong plastik.


Krim santan yang tertinggal di kantong plastik lalu dimasukkan ke dalam rice cooker. Setel rice cooker pada posisi memasak (cook). Rice cooker akan memanaskan krim santan pada temperatur 100 derajat Celsius yang relatif konstan. Karena rice cooker mempunyai pengatur panas otomatis.


Tidak perlu sering mengaduk krim santan, bahkan bisa ditinggalkan saja seperti menanak nasi. Lapisan teflon anti lengket pada panci rice cooker mencegah blondo lengket pada panci. Rice cooker tidak perlu ditutup, agar uap air keluar dengan mudah.

Air menyerap panas lebih banyak dari minyak. Jika semua air pada santan menguap maka temperatur akan naik drastis melampaui 100 derajat Celsius. Dan rice cooker mendeteksi kenaikan temperatur tersebut, akan otomatis berubah dari setelan memasak jadi menghangatkan (warm). Sehingga yang tertinggal di panci adalah minyak goreng kelapa dan blondo.

Tapi blondo yang dihasilkan oleh rice cooker masih agak lembab, sehingga kurang gurih jika dimakan. Maka blondo perlu digoreng lagi agar lebih gurih untuk dikonsumsi. 

Cara dengan rice cooker ini lebih praktis dan tidak merepotkan, karena tidak perlu mengaduk terus-menerus. Juga karena air sudah dipisahkan dan dibuang dari santan, sehingga pemanasan jadi lebih cepat. Di tempat di mana banyak terdapat pohon kelapa, harga kelapa atau santan biasanya lebih murah. Maka proses produksi minyak kelapa dengan rice cooker ini bisa murah ongkosnya.


Minyak yang dihasilkan dengan cara pemanasan santan, mempunyai titik asap sekitar 204 °C. Titik asap adalah temperatur ketika minyak menguap melepas senyawa volatil sehingga asap berwarna putih kebiruan terlihat jelas. Proses memasak tidak boleh melampaui temperatur titik asap ini. Karena minyak dapat mengeluarkan senyawa beracun jika titik asap dilampaui. Aroma dan rasa juga bisa berubah.

Di atas suhu titik asap ada titik nyala (flash point), titik di mana uap dari minyak dapat menyala di udara, jika bersentuhan dengan api atau percikan api.

3. MINYAK KELAPA DARA (VIRGIN COCONUT OIL)

Krim santan pada proses ke 2 di atas, juga bisa keluar minyaknya tanpa dipanasi. Jika dibiarkan lebih lama lagi di tempat gelap, maka krim santan akan terpisah minyaknya. Minyak ini adalah minyak kelapa dara atau virgin coconut oil (VCO). Tapi proses ini dapat memakan waktu 12 jam lebih, dan minyak yang dihasilkan lebih sedikit. VCO dapat diminum dan berkhasiat untuk kesehatan. 

Krim santan yang sudah terpisah airnya, dipindahkan dari kantong plastik ke dalam wadah kaca, diisi sampai penuh. Lalu ditutup dengan plastik dan karet, agar tidak terkena udara luar. Simpan ditempat gelap.

 


Setelah lebih sekitar 12 sampai 24 jam, krim santan akan terpisah jadi 3 bagian.

 


Bagian paling bawah adalah air berwarna agak putih keruh. Bagian tengah agak bening adalah minyak kelapa VCO. Dan paling atas berwarna putih agak kuning adalah ampas kelapa yang halus. Ampas kelapa ada juga yang mengendap ke bawah, jika minyak yang dikandung ampas sudah terlepas.

Siapkan saringan yang agak lebar, diberi sedikit lapisan kapas agar menyaring lebih bersih. Semakin tebal kapas, maka semakin bersih minyak yang disaring. Jika kapas terlalu tebal, maka minyak akan sulit menetes. Jika menggunakan corong maka penyaringan akan lebih lama, karena corong menguncup. Sehingga kapas dan kotoran menumpuk di lubang yang sempit, maka minyak sulit menetes

 


Kertas tissue bisa juga untuk menyaring minyak. Tapi kertas mudah rusak dan berlubang jika masih ada air yang terkandung di ampas kelapa.

Karena titik asap VCO rendah, sekitar 177 °C. Maka VCO kurang cocok untuk menggoreng makanan, terutama makanan yang butuh temperatur tinggi. VCO cocok untuk memasak dengan cara tumis, atau menggoreng dengan sedikit air. Ataupun cara memasak lain dengan temperatur lebih rendah dari titik asap VCO.

Pembuatan VCO tidak menghasilkan blondo kering karena tidak ada pemanasan. Hanya ada sisa ampas kelapa yang sudah terlepas minyaknya, atau blondo basah. Air yang digunakan untuk santan VCO juga bukan air panas. Karena panas dapat mengurangi kualitas VCO. Tapi air untuk santannya haruslah air yang matang, standar air minum. Agar tidak ada bakteri yang mencemari VCO.

Walaupun butuh waktu lebih lama, untuk mendiamkan santan di tempat gelap. Pembuatan VCO sebenarnya lebih mudah dan sederhana, daripada proses pembuatan minyak kelapa yang lain. Karena tidak perlu pemanasan dan pengadukan. Sehingga jam kerja yang dibutuhkan jauh lebih sedikit. Pembuatan VCO bisa dilakukan sebagai sambilan saat melakukan pekerjaan lain, atau bahkan saat tidur siang atau tidur malam. 

Minyak kelapa yang dihasilkan dengan penanak nasi dapat dilihat di foto berikut, di dalam gelas sebelah kiri sekitar 125 ml. Minyak kelapa berwarna sedikit kuning keemasan, dengan sisa blondo mengendap di dasar gelas.

 


Sedangkan di gelas sebelah kanan adalah VCO yang dihasilkan sekitar 80 ml. Tampak VCO bening seperti air jernih. Minyak dalam satu gelas tersebut dihasilkan dari satu butir kelapa tua.


Monday, February 21, 2022

Honda i-DSI: Jazz, Fit, City, Civic, Spark Plugs Replacement

 


The Honda i-DSI (Intelligent Dual & Sequential Ignition) has two spark plugs per cylinder. Each pair of spark plugs is ignited sequentially with intervals between them, depending on engine speed and load. This results in a more complete combustion of gasoline. That is why fuel consumption is so economical.

This spark plug replacement procedure is also can be seen on YouTube video below. 


As the space becomes cramped and congested, replacing spark plugs becomes more difficult. But if you know how to do it, it will be much easier. only by using a few simple hand tools. In the photo below you can see: 3/8 inches ratchet handle, 10 mm socket, 16 mm spark plug socket, 3/8x3 inches extension, 3/8x6 inches extension.

  


A 10 mm socket wrench is used to remove and install: the cover that reads i-DSI, and the spark plug coils. In total there are 2 pieces of 10 mm head size bolts (M6 thread) for the cover, and 8 pieces of 10 mm bolts to secure coils.

The retainer ball in the extension must be strong enough. So that the spark plug socket is not left in the spark plug hole when installed. Because the position of the spark plug is in the hole as deep as about 13 cm.


Inside the spark plug socket there is a rubber as plug holder. The rubber holds spark plug, to ensure plug does not fall when it will be installed, or when taking the spark plug from the spark plug hole. Also to keep the position of the spark plug in a straight line with the socket and the thread on the cylinder head, in order to prevent damage to the thread.


Below photo shows how to test the strength of the locking ball (spring-loaded detent ball). Connect the extension to the spark plug socket. Insert spark plug into the socket. As in the photo below, the left hand holds the extension, the right hand pulls the spark plug out of the socket. The spark plug must be able to detach from the socket, while the extension must remain connected to the socket.

 


Because of the narrow and deep spark plug space. Spark plug socket can be left in the spark plug hole, and difficult to be taken out. Especially if the position of the spark plug hole in the back row.

 


The photo below shows the position of the four spark plug coils in the front row.



The row of four coils on the back is a bit difficult to see. In the photo below they are indicated by the numbers. The coil position are about under those numbers.

 


The rear number four spark plug position is the narrowest. The photo below shows the position of the rear number four coil.


Disconnect all the cable connectors on the coil, by pressing the clip on the connector. Then the connector is pulled to release. Don't pull the cord.

 


The photo below shows two no clip connectors, because they are broken. But those connectors are still good and can be used.

 


Also remove all the coil connectors on the back row.

 


Remove the bracket that holds the rear wiring, near the number four rear spark plug. In the photo below, you can see the left hand holding the wiring, and the index finger pressing the locking clip. Then the cable is pushed to the backward of the car, until it is released from the bracket. The photo also shows the position of the clip near the throttle cable, which is transverse along the photo. 



Remove the bracket that holds the rear coil wiring. In the photo below shows the bracket in the red circle, near the engine oil fill hole, or near the rear number one spark plug. The wiring is held by the left hand, and removed from the bracket by pushing towards the left side of the car body, or towards the right side of the photo.

By detaching and freeing the coil wiring harness from those two brackets, it will provide space to remove coils and spark plugs.

Remove all 10 mm coil holder bolts, using a 10 mm socket wrench.

 


Once the bolt is removed, the coil can be easily removed from the spark plug hole by pulling it up.

 

The photo below shows the spark plug hole about 13 cm deep.

 


Actually the spark plug may be removed now. But sometimes there is oil or dirt that gets into the spark plug hole. If the spark plug is removed, the oil will enter the combustion chamber, which can cause scale and make valves leak, resulting in reduced compression and low power.

If the oil that enters the combustion chamber is plenty. When engine is started, oil can cause the piston to jam, because the oil cannot be compressed, or it is called a hydraulic lock. If this happens, then you must open spark plugs in all cylinders, at least one spark plug per cylinder. Make sure no coil connector is connected to prevent electric spark and gasoline burning. Then start the engine, so that the oil that enters into combustion chamber is pumped by the piston, and exits through the spark plug hole.

 Cut cardboard about 15x3 cm. Bend slightly lengthwise to make it stiffer. As the photo below.


 Insert the cardboard into the spark plug hole.

 


The cardboard will absorb the oil that has accumulated in spark plug hole. This oil can come from seepage of the seal on valve cover. This is especially happened in the rear spark plug hole.

 


If there is an air compressor with a long nozzle, so it can fit into the spark plug hole. Then the dirt and oil that collects in the spark plug hole can be sprayed by the compressor. So that compressor air blows out dirt and oil.

To remove the rear number four spark plug, connect a 3 inches extension to the spark plug socket.

 


Insert socket and 3 inches extension into the rear number four spark plug hole. Due to the depth of the hole, the extension height of 3 inches is about the mouth of the hole. So there is no room for the ratchet handle. 


Connect the 6 inches extension, to extend the 3 inches extension. So that the ratchet can be connected and rotated from above, as in the photo below.

 


Loosen and remove the rear number four spark plug with a ratchet. It can be seen in the above photo that the space above the ratchet's head is limited.

Because of this narrow space, the connection of a 3 inches extension, then a 6 inches extension, then a ratchet handle, must be done one at a time or in stages.

 After the spark plug is removed from the cylinder head. Remove the ratchet. Socket and both extensions cannot be lifted at the same time because the narrow space. The next steps are: the right hand lifts the 6 inches extension, until fingers of the left hand can catch the 3 inches extension. Then 6 inches extension is pulled and disconnected. 


Then the left hand holds and lifts the 3 inches extension, along with the socket and spark plug to be replaced.


Installing a new spark plug is the reverse of removing the old spark plug procedure. Insert the new spark plug into the socket. With a 3 inches extension, the socket and spark plug are inserted into the spark plug hole. Then connect with a 6 inches extension and a ratchet handle.

See photo below. The left hand ensures a perpendicular extension. The right hand holds the ratchet, near the head of the ratchet. Turn ratchet clockwise, so that the spark plug fits into the cylinder head thread. Rotate with the ratchet until the spark plug reaches the bottom.

 


Move your right hand to the end of the ratchet, as in the photo below. Strengthen by half a turn, or about 180 degrees. This way ensure spark plug is fitted tightly. But also it is still easy to be  removed later when the next replacement.

 


The spark plugs used in this procedure are:

NGK BKR6E-11

Denso K20PR-U11

There is another way to prevent the socket from being left in the spark plug hole, by removing the rubber plug holder in the socket. In this way the spark plug will be left in the spark plug hole after being loosened. Then the spark plug is pulled out by tools such as tweezer, plier or crocodile plier.

Then a new spark plug is put into the spark plug hole by plier. The socket is inserted into the spark plug hole while rotating slowly, so that the spark plug is caught by the socket. After the spark plug is in the socket, it is directed into the thread in the cylinder head. Then the socket is turned clockwise so that the spark plug is fitted.

Because the spark plug is not held in the socket, this method is successful in preventing the socket from being left in the spark plug hole. But this method should not be recommended. When the spark plug is inserted into the hole, there is a possibility of falling and change the spark plug gap. Also, because the spark plug is not properly gripped by the socket, it is possible that the spark plug does not fit properly into the cylinder head thread. So that it can damage the thread in the cylinder head, and it will be expensive to repair.