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Friday, April 16, 2021

Memperbaiki Setrika Listrik Otomatis Tidak Panas


Perbaikan setrika Maspion ini bisa diterapkan pada setrika lain yang menggunakan prinsip kerja yang sama, terutama setrika kering tanpa uap (non steam iron, dry iron), seperti: Philips, Miyako, Panasonic, Kirin, Electrolux, Sanken, Cosmos, dan lain-lain. Prosedur ini menggunakan gosokan atau setrika Maspion HA-110 dan Miyako EI-1009 M. Prosedur ini cukup mudah dan dapat dilakukan di saat senggang, di hari minggu atau libur.

Sebelum membongkar setrika, periksa dulu kabelnya. Karena setrika sering digerakkan, cek kabel setrika apakah terpuntir. Kabel yang terpuntir dapat menyebabkan putusnya kawat tembaga di dalam kabel. Kadang kabel yang terpuntir rusak isolasinya, sehingga kabel jadi terbuka.

  

Tampak pada foto di atas, selubung luar pelindung panas, karet biru isolasi, dan tembaga yang terbuka sangat berbahaya. Karena dapat tersentuh badan orang saat merapikan pakaian, sehingga badan kesterum listrik. 



Setelah setrika digunakan, hindari menggulung kabel. Saat kabel tergulung di dekat badan sterika, panas setrika dapat merusak kabel, juga kabel yang digulung bisa terpuntir. Foto di atas adalah contoh yang salah.

 

Sebaiknya kabel setrika dibiarkan menjuntai saja di meja setrika. Agar kabel dapat meluruskan diri sendiri.

Untuk memperbaiki komponen dalam setrika, perlu dibuka bagian belakang setrika dengan melepas 1 (satu) buah sekrup.
 
 

Pada foto di atas, tampak di bagian belakang setrika terdapat konektor kabel. Ada 3 (tiga) buah kabel. 

Kabel di tengah tersambung dengan bodi setrika, dan dengan kabel ground pada jaringan listrik rumah. Fungsinya untuk membuang muatan listrik di bodi setrika, mengurangi resiko kesetrum jika ada kebocoran arus.

Sedangkan kabel yang kiri dan kanan tersambung dengan kabel daya jaringan listrik PLN.
 
 

Test kontinuitas dengan multitester apakah ada kabel yang putus. Untuk membuka setrika, semua kabel harus dilepas dari konektornya.

Di bagian belakang setrika terdapat 2 (dua) buah sekrup penahan gagang setrika.
  
  


Tarik ke atas kenob pengatur temperatur agar terlepas. Sebagaimana foto di atas. Di bawah kenob terdapat 2 (dua) sekrup gagang setrika. Total 4 (empat) sekrup gagang setrika.
 
 


Terihat pada foto di atas. Jika semua sekrup dilepas, maka gagang bisa ditarik agar terlepas. Di bawah gagang terdapat 2 (dua) baut yang memegang bodi setrika.
 
 

Dengan melepas kedua baut tersebut maka bodi setrika jadi terbuka. Sebagaimana foto di atas. Bersihkan debgan kuas bagian dalam setrika dari debu pakaian yang terkumpul.

 

Di dalam bodi setrika terdapat elemen pemanas berbentuk V. Di tengahnya ada rangkaian bimetal sebagai pengatur suhu otomatis.
 
 

Pengatur suhu terkadang kotor. Bisa dibersihkan dengan menyemprot WD-40, tapi harus dilap sampai benar-benar kering. Karena WD-40 dapat terbakar jika panas.

Jika pengatur suhu rusak bisa dibeli dan banyak tersedia online (Bukalapak, Tokopedia, Lazada, Shopee, dan lain-lain). Di pasaran disebut juga sebagai otomatis setrika atau thermostat setrika.

Thermostat pada setrika menggunakan rangkaian bimetal, yaitu 2 (dua) jenis pelat logam yang berbeda koefisien muai panjangnya. Karena perbedaan pemuaian panjang akibat panas, saat tercapai suhu tertentu, bimetal akan melengkung karena pelat yang satu lebih panjang dari yang lain. Sehingga memutus arus listrik ke elemen pemanas. Jika suhu turun, bimetal akan kembali lurus dan elemen pemanas kembali terhubung dengan jaringan listrik.

Setelan pada thermostat mengatur tekanan pada pelat bimetal, sehingga mengatur kelengkungan bimetal pada temperatur tertentu.

Di antara elemen setrika dan thermostat, terpasang serie sekring thermal (thermal fuse). Jika setrika terlalu panas, sekring ini akan putus dan harus diganti baru. Hal ini bisa terjadi saat thermostat rusak sehingga setrika terlalu panas.
 
  

Tapi kadang baut kecil pemegang sekring thermal berkarat, terutama pada baut di elemen pemanas. Seperti pada foto di atas.

Maka untuk mengganti sekring thermal, potong kawat sekring lama dan sambung dengan sekring baru dengan dipuntir. Jika perlu disolder dengan timah yang suhu lumernya tinggi, seperti timah patri. Timah bersuhu lumer rendah akan terlepas saat setrika panas.

Lampu indikator setrika adalah lampu neon mini yang tersambung paralel dengan elemen setrika. Lampu ini mempunyai resistor sekitar 120 sampai 200 kiloohm. Lampu ini bukan lampu LED, karena bodi LED terbuat dari plastik sehingga tidak tahan panas.
 
 

Gagang setrika bisa terlepas dari bodi setrika, karena plastik landasannya pecah. Untuk setrika ini bisa diakali dengan menambahkan pelat pada baut bodi setrika. Tampak pada foto di atas, pelat kaleng biru putih bekas Pocari Sweat diselipkan di bawah baut.




Untuk setrika merk Miyako EI-1009 M, baut pemegang bodi plastik setrika ada 3 (tiga) buah.
 

Foto di atas adalah setrika Miyako yang sudah dibuka. Di tengah foto tampak sekrup pemegang bodi plastik.  2 (dua) sekrup di belakang bawah setrika. Dan 1 (satu) sekrup di atas depan setrika, tertutup gagang yang dapat dilepas dengan mencongkel dengan obeng minus.

Sekrup penjepit kabel harus dilepas untuk memisahkan bodi plastik. Sekrup ini ada  2 (dua) tapi tidak tampak pada foto.

Besi landasan setrika terlihat di kanan foto, dilepas dengan membuka 3 (tiga) baut. Baut-baut tersebut mempunyai ganjal (spacer) dari silinder plastik. Kabel merah dan biru harus dilepas dari konektornya yang menempel di bodi plastik.
 
 

Tampak di foto atas, setrika Miyako model ini mempunyai elemen pemanas yang menyatu permanen dengan besi landasan setrika. Jika elemen pemanas putus maka harus diganti bersama landasan setrika.

Sedangkan thermostat, sekring, dan lampu indikatornya mirip setrika Maspion. Lampu indikator (neon AC mini) setrika Miyako mempunyai resistor 150 kiloohm.




 



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