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Friday, February 28, 2020

Model Turbin Uap Dari Kaleng Minuman

Video berikut menampilkan model turbin yang digerakkan oleh uap. Mini turbin uap ini terbuat dari kaleng bekas susu Nestle Bear Brand sebagai ketel, dan kaleng bekas Pocari Sweat sebagai tungku. Sehingga kaleng-kaleng bekas tersebut bisa dimanfaatkan untuk dibuat mainan edukasi, tidak sekedar menjadi sampah.

Untuk ketel sengaja dipilih kaleng susu Nestle Bear Brand. Karena kaleng susu terbuat dari pelat baja yang lebih kuat dan lebih tahan panas dari kaleng minuman soda. Kaleng soda umumnya terbuat dari pelat alumunium.

Turbin atau kipas juga terbuat dari alumunium bekas kaleng minuman. Pada turbin uap sebenarnya, turbin terhubung dengan generator sehingga dapat menghasilkan listrik, Pada video dapat terlihat turbin berputar sangat cepat jika air di dalam ketel sudah mendidih. Air diisi ke dalam ketel dengan menggunakan suntikan. Suara air dapat terdengar saat diinjeksi ke dalam ketel.

Berbagai macam bahan bakar dapat digunakan (multifuel), seperti: alkohol, kertas koran bekas, minyak goreng bekas, daun kering, kayu, plastik bekas keranjang kresek. dan lain-lain. Bisa menggunakan bahan bakar dalam bentuk gas, cair, maupun padat. Intinya semua material yang mudah terbakar dapat dijadikan bahan bakar untuk turbin uap ini. Hal ini karena sistem pembakaran yang sederhana dan kontinyu. Selama bahan bakar dan udara dialirkan ke dalam tungku, dan asap serta sisa pembakaran dikeluarkan, maka pembakaran akan terus berlangsung.

Pada motor penggerak pembakaran dalam (internal combustion engine) seperti motor bakar torak (piston), sistem pembakaran lebih rumit yang terjadi di dalam ruang bakar. Pembakaran tidak kontinyu, udaranya harus dikompresi oleh gerakan piston. Pembakaran membutuhkan sistem pemantik agar terjadi pembakaran. Motor bakar torak mempunyai dua tipe siklus yaitu: Otto dan Diesel.

Pada siklus Otto,  biasanya berbahan bakar bensin, butuh alat pemantik yaitu busi. Udara yang tercampur bahan bakar dikompresi oleh langkah piston. Kemudian percikan api busi akan memicu proses pembakaran.

Pada motor Diesel butuh injektor untuk menginjeksi solar ke dalam ruang bakar. Udaranya dikompresi bertekanan tinggi, agar suhunya naik agar memicu terbakarnya solar.

Siklus Otto dan Diesel bekerja dengan bahan bakar cair, juga ada yang bisa bekerja dengan gas. Tidak bisa menggunakan bahan bakar padat.

Pada siklus Brayton (turbin gas), udara dikompresi secara kontinyu dengan kipas kompressor. Sehingga pembakaran dapat berlangsung kontinyu. Biasanya pada saat start dibutuhkan percikan api dari busi untuk memulai pembakaran. Selanjutnya bahan bakar disuplai kontinyu agar api pembakaran dijaga tetap menyala, dengan  menggunakan sistem flame holder. Turbin gas biasa digunakan pada pesawat terbang. Turbin gas menggunakan bahan bakar gas atau cair. Tidak bisa menggunakan bahan bakar padat.

Pembakaran sampah dapat menjadi sumber energi alternatif, dan mencegah sampah menumpuk. Tapi pembakaran sampah dapat menghasilkan polusi. Terutama pembakaran plastik dapat menghasilkan gas beracun. Maka gas hasil pembakaran sampah perlu disaring dan diproses, sebelum dilepas ke atmosfir.

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Automatic Electric Deep Fryer For Home

Deep fryer is a fryer with a large volume of oil, so the food is submerged in oil. In the photo above is the G-8 Great fryer model G-128 DF. With an electric heater, the frying stove is equipped with a temperature regulator, a minimum of 80 and a maximum of 190 degrees Celsius. But it is not equipped with a cooking timer. It is also called as grease fryer.

This cooker is very helpful when quarantine or covid-19 lockdown in an apartment or boarding room.

Equipped with a basket or strainer for easy laying and lifting food. The basket also prevents food from coming in contact with the pan. The temperature of the pan is much hotter than the temperature of the oil. Because the pan is made of metal which absorbs and conducts heat better than oil. If food touches the pan, the surface touched by the pan becomes more cooked or even charred.

Attention: the volume of oil in the fryer must always be between the minimum and maximum levels. If the oil is too little then the food is not dipped in oil. And there is a possibility that the heater can be damaged due to overheating due to the heat not being absorbed by the oil immediately.

The following cooking video shows a deep fryer as chicken fryer, and also to fry emping or melinjo (Gnetum gnemon) crackers.

To fry chicken, the oil is heated to 170 degrees Celsius. If the oil is hot enough the red indicator light will turn off, chicken pieces are added. The chicken will cook for about 12 to 15 minutes.

Read also make guava juice without removing the center meat.

When frying emping crackers, the temperature is set at 160 degrees Celsius. The frying time is less than 1 minute, depending on the melinjo crackers thickness.

On the internet many doubt that a deep fryer can make popcorn. Some argue that popcorn will explode and spurt hot oil. The following cooking video proves that a deep fryer can be used to make popcorn.

But the results are not so good. About 10-20% of popcorn does not expand and charred. Maybe because the maximum temperature of the deep fryer is 190 degrees Celsius. Whereas the popcorn usually needs a hotter temperature.

Because the deep fryer basket is less dense, a fine sieve is used as a place for popcorn. A fine sieve is placed in a deep fryer basket, then about one tablespoon of popcorn kernel is placed on a fine sieve.
Please note that the popcorn expands to a much larger size than the original kernel. Don't put in too much kernel, so there is enough room for the popcorn to expand. The deep fryer must be closed because the popcorn that is cracked can jump out.

The level of oil in the deep fryer is at a minimum position, and it is ensured that kernels are submerged. This of course makes popcorn more oily, so it needs to be drained for a while so that the oil is reduced. Usually the popcorn is made in a Teflon pan with very little oil or margarine / butter.

If the popcorn kernels are soaked in water for about 15 minutes, then fried, the result can be better. At the end in the video above, it can be seen that popcorns are more expanded and fewer kernels fail to expand. Because the corn kernels are soaked in water before frying. Soaking water may be mixed with salt if you want popcorn to taste salty. There is an opinion that popcorn corn that fails to expand can be soaked in water overnight, then re-fried in order not to be wasteful. But in my opinion the nutritional content will be damaged because it has been heated for too long.

For cooking fried donut the temperature is set around 180 degrees Celsius. The donut dough is fried for about 10 minutes.

In the cooking video above, a fine sieve is placed in the basket as a place for donut dough.

For cooking french fries, the temperature is set at 160 degrees Celsius.

The first potatoes in the video above are frozen potatoes that are available on the market and have been seasoned and given flour to make them crispy. Because their size are quite thick, they are cooked in about 15 minutes.

The second are fresh potatoes that are cut and without seasoning. Those sliced potatoes are cooked at a temperature of 160 degrees Celsius. Frying time is about 5 minutes, because those potato slices are thinner.

The potatoes that have been fried (french fries) are then drained and allowed to cool. Potatoes already can be eaten. But the potatoes will be fried a second time to become double fry french fries.

In the cooking video above, the second fry makes the potato skin drier, making it crispy. While the inside of the potato remains soft. Because heat takes time to travel from the potato skin to the inside. The skin is more cooked and crispy than the inside of the potato which remains soft. The temperature remains at 160 degrees Celsius for about 5 minutes. It needs to be checked often to ensure the potato skin is not too dry or charred.

If the potatoes are sliced about 1 cm thick or thicker, then the effect of a crispy skin but tender inside can be obtained with a single fry, even if not given flour. Because the heat will be more difficult to spread into the center due to the thickness of potatoes.

In addition to potatoes and other tubers, deep fryers can also be used to cook vegetables, beans, and others. If the basket gaps are too wide, for example when frying beans, then add a fine sieve made of aluminum or stainless steel. In principle all foods that can be fried in a lot of oil, can be cooked with a deep fryer.

Automatic deep fryer has a temperature regulator in order to obtain a relatively constant temperature during frying. Some models have a timer. Some are even equipped with a steam or smoke detector, so the temperature will be lowered if there is too much smoke. So the cooking results are quite good with evenly cooked.

Electric fryer does not need fuel, and does not emit combustion fumes containing: carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and others. According to experts, smoke in poorly ventilated kitchens can be more toxic than cigarette smoke and exhaust fumes on the streets. There is also no risk of explosion due to gas leakage, there is no risk of fire due to kerosene, nor the risk of other fuel uses.

With an electric cooker you can cook anywhere if electricity is available, for example: in the bedroom or boarding room, apartment, in the family tv room, on the terrace of the house, in the garden but may not be exposed to rain, and others.

The deep fryer as kitchen ware already has its own pan and stove. So if kitchen equipment is limited, then this tool is quite helpful.

Deep fryers usually require a large volume of cooking oil, so this is one of the weaknesses. If you prefer frying with minimum oil, an air fryer may be more suitable. Air fryer is an electric fryer for cooking without oil. The air fryer circulates hot air for cooking, similar to an electric grill, but you can add a little oil to become a fryer. Because it uses a little oil, the air fryer is suitable for those of you who are fat and need a low calorie diet to lose weight.

Cooking oil may not be used multiple times, only up to three times. Some experts even argue that cooking oil should only be used a maximum of two times. Because the nutrient content is damaged, exposed to heat and mixed with other substances from food. So there is an extra cost to buy cooking oil.

Deep fryers cannot be used for stir frying, which is frying food with a little oil and mixed with a little water. Even though stir frying is one of the healthiest ways to cook. Because the temperature is only around boiling water that is 100 degrees Celsius, and uses very little oil which is less than minimum level needed in deep fryer.

For frying egg needs a special place covered with Teflon. Because if you use a fine sieve, egg will stick to the sieve. But a small Teflon container that can be put into a mini deep fryer is hard to find on the market. If the egg is placed directly into the pan, it will stick to the deep fryer pan.

High temperatures cause the oil to evaporate, this vapor is not good for health. Vapor is released even before the smoke point is reached, and rises dramatically when the temperature rises above the smoke point. Smoke point of olive oil, canola oil, sunflower oil are at about temperature of 210 degrees Celsius. Palm oil has smoke point at 235 degrees Celsius.

HNE (4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal) is a toxic substance that is formed when heating cooking oil over a temperature of 190 degrees Celsius, and if oil is used many times. HNE can increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, and increase LDL cholesterol (Low-density lipoprotein) or bad cholesterol. This is one reason that this deep fryer has a maximum temperature only 190 degrees Celsius.

Frying food at a high temperature will usually damage the nutrients contained in food. Frying vegetables can reduce vitamin E, vitamin A, and beta-carotene. The mineral content will also decrease. Oil absorbed by vegetables increases fat levels, thereby increasing the risk of heart disease, hypertension, cancer, and others.

Although it is smaller than commercial fryer, this Great-8 electric fryer requires quite big electric power around 840 watts. Therefore your house must have a minimum electricity capacity above 1000 watts to be sufficient. If you are cooking with an electric fryer, do not use the power plug together with other tools. Because overloading will cause the power plug to become hot, prone to burning.

Electric fryers are usually large so they need a big space. With a capacity of 0.9 liters of oil, it can cook about 600 grams of food, this tool needs around 20x20x20 cubic centimeters space. Its capacity is small compared to the pan with relatively the same body size.

The inside of the Great-8 deep fryer pan and the outside of the body can be cleaned with wet foam. But it should not be immersed in water, or any liquid, to prevent damage to the electrical and electronic devices.

This deep fryer can be used to boil, but not recommended. Possibly because the nature of water is different from oil. Water is conducting electricity, so there is a risk of shock. Water boils at much lower temperature than oil, it is about 100 Celsius degrees above sea water. If hot oil is mixed with water, the water will be boiled instantly and release hot steam, so the hot oil will spurt.