Tuesday, March 19, 2019

MRT Jakarta Indahnya Pemandangan Di Flyover



Video YouTube berikut ini merekam cantiknya pemandangan Jakarta saat uji coba publik Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) atau disebut juga Moda Raya Terpadu.


Pada fase pertama ini rute MRT yang sudah beroperasi adalah dari Lebak Bulus menuju Bunderan Hotel Indonesia dan sebaliknya, sebagaimana gambar di bawah.



Jalur bawah tanah (subway) tergambar dengan warna merah, tentu saja tidak banyak pemandangan di situ, hanya pemandangan di dalam setiap stasiun. Stasiunnya: Bunderan Hotel Indonesia, Dukuh Atas, Setiabudi, Bendungan Hilir, Istora, Senayan.

Jalur layang (flyover) ditandai dengan warna biru. Di jalur ini banyak pemandangan cantik yang layak direkam. Stasiunnya: Sisingamangaraja, Blok M, Blok A, Haji Nawi, Cipete Raya, Fatmawati, Lebak Bulus.

Saya naik dari stasiun Bendungan Hilir dan turun di Bunderan Hotel Indonesia. Dari Bunderan HI naik lagi menuju Lebak Bulus, ini adalah jarak terjauh dan ditempuh sekitar 30 menit dengan jarak sekitar 15 kilometer. Dari Lebak Bulus naik lagi menuju ke Sisingamangaraja.

Sebagaimana dikutip dari jakartamrt,  gerbong atau kereta dengan istilah perkeretaapiannya disebut rolling stock, memiliki dimensi panjang 20 meter, lebar 2,9 meter, dan tinggi 3,9 meter. Dengan warna dominan biru dan abu-abu metalik, gerbong terbuat dari bahan baja antikarat (stainless steel) dengan berat kosong per satu kereta mencapai 31 hingga 35 ton, dibuat oleh Nippon Sharyo, Jepang

Bagian dalam kereta terlihat pada foto di bawah. Kereta memiliki kapasitas angkut maksimum 332 orang. Di fase 1, PT MRT Jakarta menyediakan 16 rangkaian kereta. Satu rangkaian terdiri dari enam kereta, maka kapasitas angkut satu rangkaian mencapai 1.950 orang.


Estimasi akan dapat mengangkut lebih dari 174 ribu orang per harinya. Headway atau rentang waktu antarkereta lima menit pada jam sibuk, dan sekitar sepuluh menit di luar jam sibuk.

Foto berikut saat kereta berada di atas jalan TB. Simatupang menuju stasiun Fatmawati dari arah Blok M. Di bawah stasiun Fatmawati terletak kantor BPJS Ketenagakerjaan (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial, Jamsostek) Cilandak, beralamat: Jl. R.A.Kartini No.18. Mulai tahun 2018 cara klaim bpjs ketenagakerjaan online, baru kemudian karyawan mendatangi kantor BPJS sesuai jadwal antrian yang didapat secara online tersebut untuk melengkapi dokumen. Dengan adanya MRT maka akan lebih mudah untuk datang ke kantor BPJS. Stasiun Fatmawati juga dekat dengan bus stop rute bandara Soetta-Cinere Airport Bus, sebelum pompa bensin.



Foto di bawah adalah pemandangan suasana tempat parkir kereta atau depo di Lebak Bulus. Stasiun Lebak Bulus dekat dengan Transmart Lebak Bulus (Carrefour), dan hotel Grand Mercure Simatupang (Mercure Lebak Bulus).



Pada saat uji coba publik, ticket MRT dapat dibeli di Bukalapak.com, dan harganya gratis. Foto berikut terlihat tanda pada penumpang saat uji coba publik.



Jika sudah beroperasi ticket dapat dibeli di Loket (Ticket Office) dan di Mesin Ticket Otomatis (Ticket Vending Machine) sebagaimana foto di bawah.



Baca juga bus Cinere Bellevue ke bandara Soekarno Hatta (Soetta), lewat: Pangkalan Jati, Pondok Labu, One Bellpark, Fatmawati, Jakarta Outer Ring Road (JORR).


Foto di bawah tampak Transjakarta rute 1E Pondok Labu - Blok M sedang parkir di taman DDN (Departemen Dalam Negeri) Pondok Labu.


Bus TransJakarta Blok M-Ciledug koridor 13 melalui jalan layang khusus bus TransJakarta.



Baca juga uji coba publik Light Rail Transit RLT Jakarta Kelapa Gading - Rawamangun.




Friday, March 1, 2019

Joule Thief With Fluorescent Ballast And Relay

Fluorescent lamp ballast or neon lamp ballast should not be thrown away because they can be used to make a joule thief. Joule thief is a simple and inexpensive circuit to increase the voltage by oscillation. It is usually used for small loads. Joule thief can be interpreted as an energy thief. This circuit is also known by other names such as blocking oscillator, joule ringer, vampire torch. The output of this circuit is high voltage reaching around 200 volts with direct current (dc). Usually it is using power transistor as switch to connect and disconnect current, and transformer with primary and secondary winding.

In this circuit there is no transformer with two windings (primary and secondary), only one winding. And it is using relay to replace power transistor. The photo below shows the arrangement of parts for this circuit. The LED lamp will be connected to those two pins of the capacitor. Because the circuit is very simple, it can be assembled without a printed circuit board (PCB) or matrix board.




Below is schematic diagram of this joule thief.


Ballasts (B) it was used for fluorescent lamp with a current capacity of 0.33 amperes and a voltage of 220 volts with a power of 15 watts.

Relay (R) with rated voltage of 5 volts, in the video the relay has 8 pins, but a 5 pins relay can do also. It functions as a circuit breaker to stop current from ballast to negative. Tested with 12 volt relay but it turns out that the power produced is lower than to the 5 volts relay. This is because the 5 volts relay draws a larger current so that the magnetic field in the coil is stronger too. Therefore the output power is also greater.

Capacitors (C) is 100 nano farads, with a voltage above 220 volts. It is collecting voltage spikes that arise when the relay cut off the current. If the current is cut off, the magnetic field in the ballast and relay coil collapses and induces high voltage in ballast coil and relay coil. This high voltage is connected in series to the supply voltage and capacitor. So that the capacitor accumulates high voltage induction plus the voltage from the supply (battery voltage).

Diode (D) 1N4007 prevents the high voltage charge in capacitor to turn back towards the ballast.

The following YouTube video shows when the circuit was tested.


If this circuit is supplied by two 9 volts batteries arranged in series, so that it has a voltage of 18 volts, it can turn on a 220 volt Philips LED lamp with 4 watts of power.

The Philips LED voltage (output) is around 56 volts with a current of 2.25 mA, so the output power or LED lamp power is 0.126 watts. Whereas the actual voltage is measured at about 17 volts with a current of 12.5 mA, so the input power is 0.213 watts, then the efficiency is around 59%. This efficiency is quite good for a very simple circuit.

Please note that not all LED bulb can be turned on by low voltage. LED bulb that cannot use dimmers, cannot work at low voltage. It is usually written as non-dimmable.

If supplied with one 9 volts battery, it is enough to turn on 40 LEDs arranged in series brightly.

For a 5 mm diameter LEDs load arranged in series, the input voltage is 9.6 volts, with an input current of 14.8 mA, so the input power is 0.142 watts. The output voltage of the LEDs series circuit is 88.4 volts with a current of 0.65 mA, so the output power is 0.057 watts. Then the efficiency is the output power divided by the input power, and the the result is 40%. This efficiency is low because the load is too small. While the power absorbed by the circuit is about the same when the circuit is given a greater load, the Philips LED bulb.